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drand and drandm in fortran are giving numbers outside of [0,1] range

By : 李相奎
Date : September 14 2020, 12:00 AM
it should still fix some issue You should use the intrinsic random_seed and random_number to generate random numbers in Fortran. The intrinsic random_number will give you real number(s) between 0 and 1.
See e.g.:
code :

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Why use Float(arc4random()) / 0xFFFFFFFF instead of drand()

By : Peter
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
it fixes the issue drand48() is fine for lots of applications, but is insecure (in other words predictable). arc4random() while not perfect was designed with security in mind.
I think Apple pushes people to arc4random() because of that. So, to answer your question: if you are generating random numbers to simulate something, drand48 should be fine, but if you are generating random numbers to protect something, then use arc4random() (or something even more secure like SecRandomCopyBytes()).

How do I read numbers from a file in Fortran and immediately do calculations with each numbers?

By : Jason
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
seems to work fine Every read also moves the read pointer forwards. So with every new read, a new line is read in from the file.
The easiest thing to do is to keep reading until the READ statement returns an error. Of course, you have to pass a variable for the READ to write its error into. Something like this:
code :
program readdata
    implicit none
    real :: x, y, z
    integer :: iounit, ios
    open(newunit=iounit, file='mydata.txt', iostat=ios, action='READ')
    if (ios /= 0) STOP 1
        read(iounit, *, iostat=ios) x, y, z
        if (ios /= 0) exit
        print *, x, y, z
    end do
end program readdata
integer :: iounit, ios
open(newunit=iounit, ...)
integer :: ios
integer, paramter :: iounit = 100
open(unit=iounit, ...)

How to replace a range of numbers in a column with a categorical value, given that range of numbers are of the type floa

By : Hemanth
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
should help you out Here is a solution using pd.cut, it's simplified because I can't see your data, also because you have overlapping bins which you need to reconcile.
code :
df = pd.DataFrame({'ratio_usage': [0.05, 0.8, 0.64, 0.59, 0.31]})

0         0.05
1         0.80
2         0.64
3         0.59
4         0.31
bins = [0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0]    
labels = ["bad", "kinda bad", "average", "kinda good", "good"]    
pd.cut(df.ratio_usage, bins=bins, labels=labels)

0           bad
1    kinda good
2       average
3       average
4     kinda bad

Remove float numbers outside the range and keep numbers inside the range in textfile

By : Pallav Sheth
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
fixed the issue. Will look into that further The problem is you have a big nasty Console.ReadLine().Meaning, you are asking for user input and the program never writes a line.
However there are other issues
code :
var lines = File.ReadAllLines(usersPath);

using (var writer = new StreamWriter(usersPath))
   foreach (var line in lines)
      if(double.TryParse(line,out var value) && value > 740.7 && value < 1500.6)
string usersPath = $"C:\\Users\\Student\\Desktop\\ConsoleApp1\\ConsoleApp1\\Data\\TextFile.txt";

// read all lines
var lines = File.ReadAllLines(usersPath)

                 // for each line, try and and convert it double, if not return null
                .Select(x => double.TryParse(x, out var value) ? value : (double?)null)

                 // filter all nulls and values outside of the range
                .Where(x => x != null && x > 740.7 && x < 1500.6)

                 // convert each element to a string
                .Select(x => x.ToString());

// write all lines
File.WriteAllLines(usersPath, lines);

Random.Range in Unity3D is not giving numbers in the range given

By : user3436805
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
I hope this helps . First of all:
The position displayed in the Unity Inspector is always the local Space offset to the according parent object.
code :
transform.localPosition = new Vector3(transform.localPosition.x,Random.Range(-58.6f ,156.18f),0);
public Transform player;
public Transform laserStart;

// Of possible already reference these via the Inspector
// Then you could skip the GetComponent entirely
[SerializeField] private CanvasGroup _canvasGroup;
[SerializeField] private SpriteRenderer _laserSpriteRenderer;
[SerializeField] private ShootBeam _laserShootBeam;

// Top secret hint for you ;)
// simply go to the ContextMenu of this component and hit FetchComponents
// Then you don't have to manually reference them.
[ContextMenu (nameof(FetchComponents))]
void FetchComponents() 
    if(!_canvasGroup) _canvasGroup = GetComponent<CanvasGroup>();
    if(!_laserSpriteRenderer) _laserSpriteRenderer = laserStart.GetComponent<SpriteRenderer>();
    if(!_laserShootBeam) _laserShootBeam = laserStart.GetComponent<ShootBeam>();

private void Start()

    //change to 20 and 35
    InvokeRepeating(nameof(ShowFork), 5, 10);

private void ShowFork()
    transform.localPosition = new Vector3(transform.localPosition.x,Random.Range(-58.6f ,156.18f),0);
    _canvasGroup.alpha = 1;
    Invoke(nameof(Fire), 3);

private void Fire()
    var screenPoint = Camera.main.ScreenToWorldPoint(new Vector3(transform.position.x-laserStart.position.x, transform.position.y, 0));
    laserStart.transform.position = new Vector3(screenPoint.x, screenPoint.y, laserStart.position.z);
    _laserSpriteRenderer.enabled = true;
    _laserShootBeam.enabled = true;
    Invoke(nameof(Revert), 3);

private void Revert()
    _canvasGroup.alpha = 0;

    // TODO: I thought you want to revert here?
    _laserShootBeam.enabled = true;
private void Start()

private IEnumerator LaserRoutine()
    //change to 20 and 35
    // initial wait
    yield return new WaitForSeconds(5.0f);

    // this looks very scary but is fine in a Coroutine
    // as long as you yield somewhere inside!
        // Your former ShowFork
        transform.localPosition = new Vector3(transform.localPosition.x,Random.Range(-58.6f ,156.18f),0);
        _canvasGroup.alpha = 1;

        yield return new WaitForSeconds(3.0f);

        // Your former Fire
        var screenPoint = Camera.main.ScreenToWorldPoint(new Vector3(transform.position.x-laserStart.position.x, transform.position.y, 0));
        laserStart.position = new Vector3(screenPoint.x, screenPoint.y, laserStart.position.z);
        _laserSpriteRenderer.enabled = true;
        _laserShootBeam.enabled = true;

        yield return new WaitForSeconds (3.0f);

        // Your former Revert

        _canvasGroup.alpha = 0;

        // TODO: I thought you want to revert here?
        _laserShootBeam.enabled = false;
        _laserSpriteRenderer.enabled = false;
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